1. Medial patellofemoral ligament - surgery can be done to stabilise a knee which has a tendency to dislocate - this can occur at the top of a flight of stairs, or when the weight is on the leg, and you twist your knee.
2. ACL / Knee reconstruction - the technology behind this has stabilised, and the biggest advance has been in requirement to return to sport - the single leg box jump test is likely to be the best predictor of ACL rupture. Trainers can also use a FIFA prescribed warm up which prevents ACL ruptures.
3. Medial meniscal tear - the most common site of tear, the medial meniscus can cause the meniscus to 'fall out' of the joint and thus render the knee 'bone on bone'. This can lead to rapid arthritis in young patients
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Orthopaedic Surgeon in Cairns, Far North Queensland